San Cipriano del Condado - 915? - Catedral de León
It is the most complete and best preserved Latin antiphonary from the Middle Ages. It was created by the end of the 9th or beginnings of the 10th centuries. It contains the most important chants of the Spanish liturgy until the end of the 11th century. It is written in Visigothic italics with neumes without stave, using the Visigothic notation and includes an interesting set of images in very defined colours, always on uncoloured background, of high quality considering its ancient dating.
North of France - Between 890 and 910 - National Library, Paris
Manuscript dated to the beginning of the 10th century that includes two very distinct parts. The first is a copy of the Apocalypse of Valenciennes in which all the miniatures are imitated although with a different style and in this case they are not full-page but are interspersed without borders in the texts. The second part is made up of ten illuminated animal fables, written by Avianus in the fourth century, of which another 32 have been lost. Its origin is some monastery in the North of France but with a treatment of the images very different from the rest of codices of that time in the area.
England - 13th century. - National Library of France, París
Of English origin, dated around 1250, he is one of the oldest representatives of the Gothic version of the Illustrated Apocalypse. In its preparation different models were used for the text and for the 90 images of half page, framed, which includes. In addition to the biblical text, it includes in the first and last pages the life of Saint John. It is considered one of the 58 Apocalypses of which are considered as the result of the commission of a particular individual.
Normandy - 1320-1330 - The British Library, London
It is the first of the group of four copies of the Apocalypse of Saint John produced in Normandy throughout the 14th century, which in this case also includes Berengaudo’s commentary and is the only case in which the Latin version is added to another in French. Of the four it is the one that best preserves the aesthetics of the Romanesque in miniatures of great quality, with a refined technique and a perfect combination of colors, all of half-page framed.
Monastery of Central Rhine - 9th Century - Municipal Library of Valenciennes.
To our French friend Jean-Luc Monneret who has sent us his work on this manuscript. which we recommend, from which we have obtained all the images in our file.
Monastery of Sahagún? - Principios del S. XII - Biblioteca Corsiniana, Roma
San Millán de la Cogolla - Siglos X y XI - Real Academia del la Historia, Madrid
Central Italy - Principles of S. XII - Statatsbibliothec Preussischer Khulturbesitz, Berlín
It is another blessed created out of Spain. With 98 pages of 300 x 190 mm written in Caroline typeface, although in the text of the drawings the Visigothic typsetting is used, and its 55 pen and ink drawings in small size looks very different than the rest of the known blessed. It is attributed to some monastery in the centre or south of Italy and John Williams includes it in the same group of the Blessed of Burgo de Osma and Lorvao, although the carachteristics of their miniatures are quite different.
Monastery of Sahagun - 1086 - Cathedral of Burgo de Osma (Soria)
Developed during the full Cluniacense influence, this blessed, that consists of 166 pages and 71 miniatures, although maintaining clear influences of Mozarabic works like the first blessed of the National Library, the one of El Escorial and the one of St. Millán, has a clear link with the Romanesque painting, for instance, in the
replacement in some cases of the horseshoe arches by semi circular ones, or in the apparel of the characters that clearly reflect the customs in the 11th century. We can consider it as the first Hispanic Romanesque blessed.
Santo Domingo de Silos - Pirineo Navarro?
St. Millán de la Cogolla - 955 - El Escorial Monastery
Considered almost unanimously as have been originated in St. Millán de la Cogolla and dated between 950 and 955. It consists of 151 pages and 52 miniatures that show the characteristics of the works of said monastery: aggressive colours with yellow predominating as a background; characters’ faces treated equally, with great expression, almond eyed, straight necks, lip corners downwards and double lobed ears.
San Millán de la Cogolla - 1040/1060 - Copies i B. Morgan, N. York
León - 1047 - Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid) Vitr. 14-2
This is the only blessed (with the possible exception of the Blessed of Las Huelgas) that was copied for the kings of Castile and León. Commisioned by Ferdinand the First and Doña Sancha, it consists of 624 pages of 360 x 268 mm to 2 columns in Visigothic writing and 98 miniatures of great quality. It was preserved in the Colegiata of St. Isidore of León until Philip the Fourth requisitioned it and sent it to the Royal Library. Today it is preserved in the National Library of Madrid, in the showcase 14,2. Illustrated during the period in which the Cluniacense influence was beginning to show up, it corresponds to a very meaningful change in style with regard to the Spanish miniature of the preceeding century.
San Salvador de Tábara - 975 - Cathedral of Gerona
Abbey of Monte Cassino? - Mediados del siglo XI - Biblioteca de Ginebra
Monastery of Valcavado? - 975 - Cathedral of Deo Urgel's Cathedral
San Pedro de Cardeña? - 1220 - Biblioteca Morgan, N. York
San Mamede de Lorvao monastery - 1189 - Torre del Tombo, Lisboa
Based largely in the considered as pictorial version I, it is the most completely preseved in this version. It is one of the latest blessed, most of them created in Cistercian monasteries, in this case, in St. Mamed of Lorvao’s, near Coimbra. The style of its miniatures, though clearly Romanesque, is not comparable to any other Spanish High Medieval codex. Simple pen and ink drawings on red and light yellow backgrounds, with very stylized and schematic figures standing out its essential lines.
Monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña? - 1189 - John Rylands Library,. Manchester