Turismo Prerrománico > Art and Culture > Hermitages > Index of files of monuments

Index of files of monuments

CONJUNTO EREMÍTICO DE PEÑA ROTA (R)

Hermitages - 9th Century - Burgos

Located very close to Salas de los Infantes, it was partially dynamited at the beginning of the 20th century for the construction of a road. It is a hermit complex from the 8th and 9th centuries, which currently consists of 13 caves excavated in a large block of sandstone, of which several were only accessible by wooden stairs or stairs as the one existing in the only visitable. The rooms consisted of a wooden door, with a corridor leading to the cell, although there are two consisting of several cells with a single access corridor. There must also have been a cave temple that disappeared today.

CUEVA DE LA VIRGEN DE MONTESCLAROS

Hermitages - 10th Century - Cantabria

On a height between the beak Solaloma and the river Ebro, there raises Montesclaros’s Royal Sanctuary, place of secular Marian reference of the municipalities of Campoo’s Cantabrian region – The Valleys. Immediately after the excavations realized in the subsoil of the Sanctuary, in 1966, a pre-romanesque crypt was discovered on the cave. Of rectangular plant – of 3,5 meters of width for 3 of length – with an altar of stone adorned with a height of roped of white of egg Asturian influence (period ramirense) and in whose front is figured by symbols of Celtic tradition.

Cueva de San Martín

Hermitages - 9th Century - Zamora

The “Cave of St. Martín”is a small cave church with access through an arch created in the walled in part of the access to the cave and consists of a rectangular nave of 3.30 m by 3.60 m covered with a sort of basket-handle arch, that lets access to the apse through a horseshoe arch of 2.60 m diameter, covered with a dome. It is known it was utilized in the 9th and 10th centuries, but it is possible that it already existed from the 4th century.

CUEVA DE SIETE ALTARES (R)

Hermitages - 7th Century - Segovia

In the sickles of the river Duratón, near Sepúlveda one finds this eremitorio created in the 7th century by San Frutos and his brothers, missing person during the Arabic invasion. It was consisting of a public exterior, semiexcavated chapel, with an altar in the shape of horse-shoe. Entering a great arch, nowadays in very poor condition, another zone exists, with three excavated altars, also in the shape of horse-shoe, for use of the monks and more to the bottom the cells of the monks.

CUEVA SANTA DE LIEBANA

Hermitages - 9th Century - Cantabria

This semi cave hermitage is found in the vicinity of the Monastery of St. Toribio de Liébana, on the northern slope of the Viorna hill, built with ashlars in a cave blocked on one of its sides. It has two floors; the lower one with the monk's cell, from which a ramp access the rectangular shaped chapel on the upper floor.

CUEVAS DE LOS PORTUGUESES DE ARROYO DE LAS TORCAS

Hermitages - 7th Century - Burgos

The isolated cave complex of Creek of the Torcas (La Horadada), in the Merindades (Burgos), consists of 14 rooms excavated in a wall of sandstone, in a small covered gorge of an exuberant grove, where a mighty creek flows shaping a curious secret habitat from the exterior.

ERMITA DE ARROYUELOS

Hermitages - 8th Century - Cantabria

Two storey church excavated in a large sandstone block with the rests of a tombstone and a necropolis with High Medieval graves outside. It has a single nave wider than its central body where there is a prismatic pillar with papyrus shaped ribs on the cover, an apse with horseshoe plan and a sort of counter apse at the feet with shapes not well defined.

ERMITA DE SAN PANTALEÓN

Hermitages - 8th Century - Cantabria

Remains of an isolated set placed in the high part of a crag, formed by a hermitage with the part it goes down the walls excavated in the rock, which was consisting of a nartex covered with a few stairs of access carved in the stone, a rectangular ship and an apse, besides a necrólolis in the sides this and south of the hermitage, and some cubicles excavated in the rock, which they should have been hermits’ cells.

IGLESIA RUPESTRE DE CAMPO DE EBRO

Hermitages - 8th Century - Cantabria

Semi cave hermitage built in a cave partly blocked with ashlars on one of its sides. It has a single plan formed by a rectangular nave and a quadrangular apse, separated by a semicircular arch, the whole carved on the rock. There is no consistent approach on whether it was built during the first christianization of the area at the end of the 6th and beginnings of the 7th centuries, or at the beginnings of the resettlement around the 9th century.

ORATORIO DE VALDECANALES (R)

Hermitages - 7th Century - Jaén

Visigothic monastery consisting of three constructions excavated on the rock. The main one is formed by three naves covered with barrel vaults separated by square pillars presenting a monumental facade with a series of twelve horseshoe arches and timpanii decorated with palmettes. The two other caves might have been used as residence for the monks that lived in the prayer room, and the third one as a baptistry.

SAN JUAN DE SOCUEVA

Hermitages - 8th Century - Cantabria

Semi rock cave built by means of blocking the opening of a cave. It has a rectangular nave divided in two horizontal stretches and an apse with semicircular plan, covered with a semidome vault and separated from the nave by a triumphal horseshoe arch. It was declared Heritage of Cultural Interest in 1985.

SAN MIGUEL DE PRESILLAS

Hermitages - 8th Century - Burgos

Hermitage ensemble excavated on a rocky headland that overlooks the valley, formed by a church built at two levels, a cave baptistry and several artificial cells. The main floor has a basilical shape with three very short and very high naves, with three apses, whereas the upper part has a platfotm overlooking the whole church. Both have access from the western side of the headland, although at present, the lower one is closed with a gate.

SAN PEDRO DE ARGÉS

Hermitages - 10th Century - Burgos

Temple excavated on sandstone rock on an environment with other remnants of buildings and a small necropolis. It has two naves; the second one built possibly in the 12th century, two curved plan apses and a nartex at the end of the main nave, somewhat higher, where there are two graves.

SAN PEDRO DE ROCAS (R)

Hermitages - 9th Century - Orense

Originally it was necessary to to have been an visigoth hermitage  since there has appeared the tablet of foundation of the year 573. At the end of the 9th century there re-was founded the monastery to which Alfonso III granted privileges. It consists of three chapels excavated in the rock, communicated between yes, with arches of horse-shoe on attached columns and capitals worked in the same rock; it preserves the primitive altars in the shape of tables and also decorated with arches of horse-shoe.

SAN PEDRO DE TARTALÉS

Hermitages - 9th Century - Burgos

Iglesia excavada en la cara occidental de la Sierra de la Tesla, dominando el valle, con dos grandes sepulturas en el exterior. Consta de un cuerpo central rectangular y dos ábsides contrapuestos y está situada cerca de un conjunto de cuevas excavadas a una altura inferior, llamado 'Cueva de los Portugueses' que podría ser un eremitorio dependiente de la iglesia de San Pedro.

Santa María de la Cabeza

Hermitages - 9th Century - Málaga

Monastic ensemble excavated on the rock, formed by a church and a living area. The church has an irregular shape and a total surface of 272 square metres. It has a central nave with trapezoidal plan ending in a semicircular apse, a vestry and other two naves with altars and niches on the end walls, located on the sides of the central one in a radial position starting at the main entrance with a semicircular arch.

SANTA MARIA DE VALVERDE

Hermitages - 9th Century - Cantabria

Rock church, still used as parish temple, carved in a sandstone rock, possibly from the Visigoth period and reused since the first repopulation. Subsequently, a belfry was added and recently it is covered by a wooden roof to protect it. With three accesses, its interior, which has two naves of different structure separated by a triple archery on square pillars, finished in also different headwaters, one simple with a triumphal horseshoe arch and the other triple. All the spaces are covered by vaults carved into the rock. On the same surface on which the church is excavated there are some twenty medieval tombs and there is another group south of the church.

Santos Justo y Pastor

Hermitages - 10th Century - Palencia

Cave church surrounded by a set of headstones and a necropolis completed in the 17th century with a bell tower, a portico and an access staircase. It is formed by two naves covered with a barrel vault with false transverse arches carved on the rock, separated by three columns and a pillar, with two semicircular apses.

SANTOS JUSTO Y PASTOR (R)

Hermitages - 10th Century - Palencia

Construida en el siglo X u XI por mozárabes huídos del Islam, la Iglesia de los Santos Justo y Pastor es el mejor ejemplo del eremitismo rupestre español. Su anómala orientación N-S, va acompañada por el hecho de que, el templo en sí, está labrado para dar la sensación a quien lo visita de que pertenece al estilo románico de la época, gracias a elementos tales como su falsa bóveda apuntada, sus arcos fajones y sus columnas adosadas. En conclusión, una verdadera obra de arte.

VILLAESCUSA DE EBRO

Hermitages - 7th Century - Cantabria

Hermitage ensemble created by utilizing three existing caves in El Tobazo, one of them was a cave church formed by a rectangular apse and a square nave with access through a horseshoe arch gate located in the western end of the northern side. One of the other caves might have been used for dwelling purposes and the other one for burials.
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