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Index of files of monuments

CUEVA DE LA VIRGEN DE MONTESCLAROS

Eremitorios - Siglo X - Cantabria

On a height between the beak Solaloma and the river Ebro, there raises Montesclaros’s Royal Sanctuary, place of secular Marian reference of the municipalities of Campoo’s Cantabrian region – The Valleys. Immediately after the excavations realized in the subsoil of the Sanctuary, in 1966, a pre-romanesque crypt was discovered on the cave. Of rectangular plant – of 3,5 meters of width for 3 of length – with an altar of stone adorned with a height of roped of white of egg Asturian influence (period ramirense) and in whose front is figured by symbols of Celtic tradition.

Cueva de San Martín

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Zamora

The “Cave of St. Martín”is a small cave church with access through an arch created in the walled in part of the access to the cave and consists of a rectangular nave of 3.30 m by 3.60 m covered with a sort of basket-handle arch, that lets access to the apse through a horseshoe arch of 2.60 m diameter, covered with a dome. It is known it was utilized in the 9th and 10th centuries, but it is possible that it already existed from the 4th century.

Cueva de Siete Altares

Eremitorios - Siglo VII - Segovia

In the sickles of the river Duratón, near Sepúlveda one finds this eremitorio created in the 7th century by San Frutos and his brothers, missing person during the Arabic invasion. It was consisting of a public exterior, semiexcavated chapel, with an altar in the shape of horse-shoe. Entering a great arch, nowadays in very poor condition, another zone exists, with three excavated altars, also in the shape of horse-shoe, for use of the monks and more to the bottom the cells of the monks.

CUEVA SANTA DE LIEBANA

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Cantabria

This semi cave hermitage is found in the vicinity of the Monastery of St. Toribio de Liébana, on the northern slope of the Viorna hill, built with ashlars in a cave blocked on one of its sides. It has two floors; the lower one with the monk's cell, from which a ramp access the rectangular shaped chapel on the upper floor.

CUEVAS DE LOS PORTUGUESES DE ARROYO DE LAS TORCAS

Eremitorios - Siglo VII - Burgos

The isolated cave complex of Creek of the Torcas (La Horadada), in the Merindades (Burgos), consists of 14 rooms excavated in a wall of sandstone, in a small covered gorge of an exuberant grove, where a mighty creek flows shaping a curious secret habitat from the exterior.

ERMITA DE ARROYUELOS

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Cantabria

Two storey church excavated in a large sandstone block with the rests of a tombstone and a necropolis with High Medieval graves outside. It has a single nave wider than its central body where there is a prismatic pillar with papyrus shaped ribs on the cover, an apse with horseshoe plan and a sort of counter apse at the feet with shapes not well defined.

ERMITA DE SAN PANTALEÓN

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Cantabria

Remains of an isolated set placed in the high part of a crag, formed by a hermitage with the part it goes down the walls excavated in the rock, which was consisting of a nartex covered with a few stairs of access carved in the stone, a rectangular ship and an apse, besides a necrólolis in the sides this and south of the hermitage, and some cubicles excavated in the rock, which they should have been hermits’ cells.

IGLESIA RUPESTRE DE CAMPO DE EBRO

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Cantabria

Semi cave hermitage built in a cave partly blocked with ashlars on one of its sides. It has a single plan formed by a rectangular nave and a quadrangular apse, separated by a semicircular arch, the whole carved on the rock. There is no consistent approach on whether it was built during the first christianization of the area at the end of the 6th and beginnings of the 7th centuries, or at the beginnings of the resettlement around the 9th century.

Oratorio de Valdecanales

Eremitorios - Siglo VII - Jaén

Visigothic monastery consisting of three constructions excavated on the rock. The main one is formed by three naves covered with barrel vaults separated by square pillars presenting a monumental facade with a series of twelve horseshoe arches and timpanii decorated with palmettes. The two other caves might have been used as residence for the monks that lived in the prayer room, and the third one as a baptistry.

SAN JUAN DE SOCUEVA

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Cantabria

Semi rock cave built by means of blocking the opening of a cave. It has a rectangular nave divided in two horizontal stretches and an apse with semicircular plan, covered with a semidome vault and separated from the nave by a triumphal horseshoe arch. It was declared Heritage of Cultural Interest in 1985.

SAN MIGUEL DE PRESILLAS

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Burgos

Hermitage ensemble excavated on a rocky headland that overlooks the valley, formed by a church built at two levels, a cave baptistry and several artificial cells. The main floor has a basilical shape with three very short and very high naves, with three apses, whereas the upper part has a platfotm overlooking the whole church. Both have access from the western side of the headland, although at present, the lower one is closed with a gate.

SAN PEDRO DE ARGÉS

Eremitorios - Siglo X - Burgos

Temple excavated on sandstone rock on an environment with other remnants of buildings and a small necropolis. It has two naves; the second one built possibly in the 12th century, two curved plan apses and a nartex at the end of the main nave, somewhat higher, where there are two graves.

San Pedro de Rocas

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Orense

Originalmente debió ser un ermitorio visigodo ya que ha aparecido la lápida de fundación del año 573. A finales del siglo IX se refundó el monasterio al que Alfonso III concedió privilegios. Consta de tres capillas excavadas en la roca, comunicadas entre sí, con arcos de herradura sobre columnas adosadas y capiteles labrados en la misma roca; conserva los altares primitivos en forma de mesas y también decorados con arcos de herradura.

SAN PEDRO DE TARTALÉS

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Burgos

Iglesia excavada en la cara occidental de la Sierra de la Tesla, dominando el valle, con dos grandes sepulturas en el exterior. Consta de un cuerpo central rectangular y dos ábsides contrapuestos y está situada cerca de un conjunto de cuevas excavadas a una altura inferior, llamado 'Cueva de los Portugueses' que podría ser un eremitorio dependiente de la iglesia de San Pedro.

Santa María de la Cabeza

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Málaga

Monastic ensemble excavated on the rock, formed by a church and a living area. The church has an irregular shape and a total surface of 272 square metres. It has a central nave with trapezoidal plan ending in a semicircular apse, a vestry and other two naves with altars and niches on the end walls, located on the sides of the central one in a radial position starting at the main entrance with a semicircular arch.

Santos Justo y Pastor

Eremitorios - Siglo X - Palencia

Cave church surrounded by a set of headstones and a necropolis completed in the 17th century with a bell tower, a portico and an access staircase. It is formed by two naves covered with a barrel vault with false transverse arches carved on the rock, separated by three columns and a pillar, with two semicircular apses.

VILLAESCUSA DE EBRO

Eremitorios - Siglo VII - Cantabria

Hermitage ensemble created by utilizing three existing caves in El Tobazo, one of them was a cave church formed by a rectangular apse and a square nave with access through a horseshoe arch gate located in the western end of the northern side. One of the other caves might have been used for dwelling purposes and the other one for burials.

Villanueva de Algaidas

Eremitorios - Siglo IX - Málaga

Cave ensemble excavated on a rocky headland. It consists of two rectangular caves not connected with each other, in which the western side was closed by masonry walls. The larger one, oriented towards east, must have been the church, with a single nave covered with a barrel vault, with a semi circular arch surrounding the apse and two small lateral compartments. The other cave, much smaller, could have been a hermit cave.

VIRGEN DEL CARMEN DE CADALSO

Eremitorios - Siglo VIII - Cantabria

Small hermitage carved on the rock that consists of a nave and a rectangular apse separated by a triumphal semicircular arch. On account of its features it may have been a Visigothic hermitage from the period of St. Millán de la Cogolla or maybe one of the multiple hermitage centres created in the valley of Valderredible during the resettlement.

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